History of LED lighting

Key LED bulb parameters

Power consumption

Power is measured in watts. Watts show the amount of power an appliance uses up in one hour. The fewer watts, the higher economy of a lamp.
Power is one of the key parameters of LED lamps, for it affects the quality of lighting.

Brightness (Luminosity)

Measured in lumens (SI system designation ‘Lm’). Luminosity ensures the lamp’s capacity to illuminate a room to a certain degree of brightness. Luminosity is determined from the sensory perception of the human eye. The larger the number of lumens, the eye-friendlier the lamp.
Lumens also relate to the economy of the lamp. The higher the measurement of lumens produced per wat (lm/W), the more efficient the lamp.

Lifetime

Lifetime is the number of hours that the lamp is capable of operating. The life of a LED lamp varies between 30 000 and 50 000 hours. Experience shows that in 25 000 hours the luminosity of the lamp decreases from 10% up to 20%.
The LED lamp handles fluctuations of voltage and on-off switch cycles way better than the incandescent light bulb, particularly those of the luminescence lamp variety.

Angle of illumination

Measured in degrees, the angle of incidence has to be taken into account so as to avoid intensification of light (and its reflection off surfaces) in particular areas of the room. It is advisable to have his parameter range over 150° (≥160°) so as to ensure a broad ray of light dispersed evenly over a large area of a room.

Sockets (Bases)

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E27 – the most commonly used lamp base. It is 27 mm in diameter at the screw. This standard of the base is commonly used in households, apartments, and offices. This base is commonly used on 60, 75, 100 and 150W incandescent light bulbs and 5-18 W LED lamps. The most popular ones are of spherical or parabolic shape.
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E14 – the second most common base standard in lamps. It is 14 mm in diameter at the screw. This base is used on bulbs of lesser power – between 15 and 60 W. These bulbs are smaller in size and are often used in small wall-bound appliances, table lamps, and chandeliers. These are generally marble- of candle-shaped.
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GU10 – a base with adjustable plugins within the shell. There are 10 mm between 2 plugins (their centrals parts). In case more than 2 plugins are attached to the base, the diameter of the area where the plugins are arranged is 10 mm. In the picture, we have a base with 2 plugins, their centres 10 mm apart. These bases are generally used with ceiling and custom lighting arrangements. In order to ensure the rotatable connection with the socket, the GU10 base plugins are broadened at the ends.

Corresponding efficiency, power consumption and light radiance

Power consumption

Efficiency

Heat

Color temperature (Color spectrum)

Temperature, measured in Kelvins (designation ‘К’), produce the aesthetic quality of the light produced.

The light of 2700°К has a yellowish shade, it is pleasant to the eye, gives a soothing sensation, and is recommended for domestic use. 3500°К gives the light the quality of increased brightness; 4000-5000 °К is naturally daylight-white.

Light that is over 5000°К in temperature produces a cold shade of white and is recommended for external lighting – streets and vitrines. For living spaces, it is recommended to use a lamp of 2700-3500°К.

Other LED lighting characteristics

Flickering or pulsation

Incandescent bulb pulsation frequency ratio is 15-18%. Fluorescent bulbs also have a high pulsation percentage. On the other hand, for quality LED bulbs this ratio lower than 4%, which makes it possible for installation in any type of premises.

LED lumen depreciation factor

External factors may negatively affect the lifespan of a LED lamp. Defects occur with lacking thermo-capacity of a LED crystal, which may cause a state known as LED crystal degradation.

It means that at a continuous production of heat only a part of the crystals within the lamp provide illumination. Moreover, the consumption of electrical current remains unchanged. In other words, energy is used up for naught.
It is a generally known fact that after a specified lifespan of a LED lamp its brightness is decreased by up to 30%.

Colour rendering index (CRI / Ar)

This parameter describes the observability levels of a perceived natural colour by a specific lighting. The lesser the parameter deviates from the natural daylight (the higher the CRI number), the higher the tested LED lamp is evaluated in terms of colour visibility. At the parameter value of Ar=100, a light source allows an optimal level of colour perceptibility. Colour rendering index of the sun is deemed at 100. Our LED lamps has the CRI >80.